replay sudo session logs
sudoreplay plays back or lists the output
logs created by
sudo. When replaying,
sudoreplay can play the session back in real-time,
or the playback speed may be adjusted (faster or slower) based on the
command line options.
The ID should either be a six character sequence
of digits and upper case letters, e.g.,
0100A5 or a
path name. The ID may include an optional
@offset suffix which may be used to start replaying at
a specific time offset. The @offset is specified as a
number in seconds since the start of the session with an optional decimal
Path names may be relative to the I/O log
directory /var/log/sudo-io (unless overridden by the
-d option) or fully qualified, beginning with a
/’ character. When a command is run
enabled in the
TSID=ID string is logged via syslog or to
sudo log file. The ID may also
be determined using
sudoreplay's list mode.
In list mode,
sudoreplay can be used to
find the ID of a session based on a number of criteria such as the user,
tty, or command run.
In replay mode, if the standard input and output are connected to
a terminal and the
-n option is not specified,
sudoreplay will operate interactively. In
sudoreplay will attempt to adjust
the terminal size to match that of the session and write directly to the
terminal (not all terminals support this). Additionally, it will poll the
keyboard and act on the following keys:
\n’ or ‘
- Skip to the next replay event; useful for long pauses.
- Pause output; press any key to resume.
- Reduce the playback speed by one half.
- Double the playback speed.
The session can be interrupted via control-C. When the session has finished, the terminal is restored to its original size if it was changed during playback.
The options are as follows:
- Store session logs in dir instead of the default, /var/log/sudo-io.
- Select which I/O type(s) to display. By default,
sudoreplaywill display the command's standard output, standard error, and tty output. The filter argument is a comma-separated list, consisting of one or more of following: stdin, stdout, stderr, ttyin, and ttyout.
- Enable “follow mode”. When replaying a session,
sudoreplaywill ignore end-of-file and keep replaying until the log is complete. This can be used to replay a session that is still in progress, similar to “tail -f”. An I/O log file is considered to be complete when the write bits have been cleared on the session's timing file. Versions of
sudoprior to 1.9.1 do not clear the write bits upon completion.
- Display a short help message to the standard output and exit.
- Enable “list mode”. In this mode,
sudoreplaywill list available sessions in a format similar to the
sudolog file format, sorted by file name (or sequence number). If a search expression is specified, it will be used to restrict the IDs that are displayed. An expression is composed of the following predicates:
- command pattern
- Evaluates to true if the command run matches the POSIX extended regular expression pattern.
- cwd directory
- Evaluates to true if the command was run with the specified current working directory.
- fromdate date
- Evaluates to true if the command was run on or after date. See Date and time format for a description of supported date and time formats.
- group runas_group
- Evaluates to true if the command was run with the specified
runas_group. Unless a
runas_group was explicitly specified when
sudowas run this field will be empty in the log.
- host hostname
- Evaluates to true if the command was run on the specified hostname.
- runas runas_user
- Evaluates to true if the command was run as the specified
runas_user. By default,
sudoruns commands as the root user.
- todate date
- Evaluates to true if the command was run on or prior to date. See Date and time format for a description of supported date and time formats.
- tty tty name
- Evaluates to true if the command was run on the specified terminal device. The tty name should be specified without the /dev/ prefix, e.g., tty01 instead of /dev/tty01.
- user user name
- Evaluates to true if the ID matches a command run by user name.
Predicates may be abbreviated to the shortest unique string.
Predicates may be combined using and, or, and ! operators as well as ‘
(’ and ‘
)’ grouping (parentheses must generally be escaped from the shell). The and operator is optional, adjacent predicates have an implied and unless separated by an or.
- Specify an upper bound on how long to wait between key presses or output
data. By default,
sudoreplaywill accurately reproduce the delays between key presses or program output. However, this can be tedious when the session includes long pauses. When the
-moption is specified,
sudoreplaywill limit these pauses to at most max_wait seconds. The value may be specified as a floating point number, e.g., 2.5. A max_wait of zero or less will eliminate the pauses entirely.
- Do not prompt for user input or attempt to re-size the terminal. The session is written to the standard output, not directly to the user's terminal.
- Do not attempt to re-size the terminal to match the terminal size of the session.
- Wait while the command was suspended. By default,
sudoreplaywill ignore the time interval between when the command was suspended and when it was resumed. If the
-Soption is specified,
sudoreplaywill wait instead.
- This option causes
sudoreplayto adjust the number of seconds it will wait between key presses or program output. This can be used to slow down or speed up the display. For example, a speed_factor of 2 would make the output twice as fast whereas a speed_factor of .5 would make the output twice as slow.
- Print the
sudoreplayversions version number and exit.
Date and time format
The time and date may be specified multiple ways, common formats include:
- HH:MM:SS am MM/DD/CCYY timezone
- 24 hour time may be used in place of am/pm.
- HH:MM:SS am Month, Day Year timezone
- 24 hour time may be used in place of am/pm, and month and day names may be abbreviated. Month and day of the week names must be specified in English.
- CCYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
- ISO time format
- DD Month CCYY HH:MM:SS
- The month name may be abbreviated.
Either time or date may be omitted, the am/pm and timezone are optional. If no date is specified, the current day is assumed; if no time is specified, the first second of the specified date is used. The less significant parts of both time and date may also be omitted, in which case zero is assumed.
The following are all valid time and date specifications:
- The current time and date.
- Exactly one day from now.
- 24 hours ago.
- 2 hours ago
- 2 hours ago.
- next Friday
- The first second of the Friday in the next (upcoming) week. Not to be confused with “this Friday” which would match the Friday of the current week.
- last week
- The current time but 7 days ago. This is equivalent to “a week ago”.
- a fortnight ago
- The current time but 14 days ago.
- 10:01 am 9/17/2009
- 10:01 am, September 17, 2009.
- 10:01 am
- 10:01 am on the current day.
- 10:00 am on the current day.
- 00:00 am, September 17, 2009.
- 10:01 am Sep 17, 2009
- 10:01 am, September 17, 2009.
Relative time specifications do not always work as expected. For
example, the “next” qualifier is intended to be used in
conjunction with a day such as “next Monday”. When used with
units of weeks, months, years, etc the result will be one more than
expected. For example, “next week” will result in a time
exactly two weeks from now, which is probably not what was intended. This
will be addressed in a future version of
sudoreplay versions 1.8.4 and higher
support a flexible debugging framework that is configured via
Debug lines in the
For more information on configuring sudo.conf(5), refer to its manual.
- Debugging framework configuration
- The default I/O log directory.
- Example session log info.
- Example session log info (JSON format).
- Example session standard input log.
- Example session standard output log.
- Example session standard error log.
- Example session tty input file.
- Example session tty output file.
- Example session timing file.
The stdin, stdout and
stderr files will be empty unless
sudo was used as part of a pipeline for a particular
List sessions run by user millert:
# sudoreplay -l user millert
List sessions run by user bob with a command containing the string vi:
# sudoreplay -l user bob command vi
List sessions run by user jeff that match a regular expression:
# sudoreplay -l user jeff command '/bin/[a-z]*sh'
List sessions run by jeff or bob on the console:
# sudoreplay -l ( user jeff or user bob ) tty console
Many people have worked on
sudo over the
years; this version consists of code written primarily by:
See the CONTRIBUTORS.md file in the
distribution (https://www.sudo.ws/about/contributors/) for an exhaustive
list of people who have contributed to
If you believe you have found a bug in
sudoreplay, you can submit a bug report at
Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list, see https://www.sudo.ws/mailman/listinfo/sudo-users to subscribe or search the archives.
sudoreplay is provided “AS
IS” and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited
to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular
purpose are disclaimed. See the LICENSE.md file distributed with
sudo or https://www.sudo.ws/about/license/ for